For 1), just do what it says: "Write the distance equation."

Distance = Rate * Time

Do this more specifically for each traveller and see what falls out.

For 2), you must define or name your integers. It doesn't matter what you call them, just call the SOMETHING so that you can talk about them.

"Four consecutive odd integers"

I'm tempted to ignore that they are odd and see if I really care. If we have to be more specific, we can be. I'll still separate them by 2. Think about what Integers are. Why didn't it ask for Whole Numbers? We might get negative values, but will we get fractions like 1/4 or 12/7?

The first we'll call 'x', just because that it a popular choice. You can call it 'Bruce' if you like, but 'x' is a little simpler to write and say.

What's the NEXT integer 2 greater than the first one? x+2

The third one? x+4

The fourth one? x+6

Great, now they all have names. What does the problem tell us?

"5 times the sum of the first two"

5*(x + (x+2))

"5 less than 19 times the fourth"

19*(x+6) - 5

OK, now what does it want?

"What were the integers?"

5*(x + (x+2)) = 19*(x+6) - 5

5x + 5(x+2) = 19x + 114 - 5

5x + 5x + 10 = 19x + 109

10x + 10 = 19x + 109

10 = 9x + 109

-99 = 9x

-11 = x

x+2 = -9

x+4 = -7

x+6 = -5

It turns out the only solution does, indeed, have ODD numbers, so it really wasn't necessary to define that more carefully. It just worked out.

Now check.

"5 times the sum of the first two was 5 less than 19 times the fourth""

5*(-11 + (-9)) = 19*(-5) - 5 ??

5*(-20) = -95 - 5 ??

-100 = -100 !! Yes! I think we're done.